Field-based investigation of aged biochar coupled with summer legumes effect on wheat yield in Pakistan
There is a debate about the effect of the aged biochar on the crop yield. Herein, a field-based experimental data set and analysis provide the information on the effect of the aged biochar coupled with summer legumes on the yield of wheat. During summer 2016, three different legumes (mungbean, sesbania, and cowpea) were grown with the intention of grain for human consumption, green manuring for soil fertility improvement and fodder for livestock consumption. A fallow (control) was also included in the experiment with the purpose of comparison. Biochar was applied to each experimental plot in triplicates at the rate of 0, 5, and 10 tons ha-1. Afterward, the harvesting of legumes, the biomass of the sesbania treatment plot, was mixed in the field, although the biomass of mungbean and cowpea were detached from each respective plot. The wheat crop was grown on the same field layout and design (randomized complete block) of legumes. The data analysis highlighted that significantly maximum grain yield (kg ha-1), biological yield (kg ha-1), thousand-grain weight (g), and straw yield (kg ha-1) were obtained in the plots mixed with sesbania. Regarding the aged biochar effect, maximum yield was obtained in the plots with 10 tons ha-1 treatment. Additionally, the interaction of aged biochar, coupled with legumes, was non-significant. In conclusion, this work could prove that aged biochar, coupled with summer legumes enhanced the yield of wheat on a sustainable basis due to its numerous benefits to the plant system.
Atkinson, C. J., Fitzgerald, J. D., & Hipps, N. A. (2010). Potential mechanisms for achieving agricultural benefits from biochar application to temperate soils: A review. Plant and Soil, 337(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104 -010-0464-5
Breiman, A., & Graur, D. (1995). Wheat evolution. Israel Journal of Plant Science. 43, 85-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/07929978.1995.10676595.
Herridge, D., Rupela, O., Serraj, R., & Beck, D. (1993). Screening techniques and improved biological nitrogen fixation in cool season food legumes. Euphytica. 73, 95-108. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00027186.
Jeffery, S., Verheijen, F. G., van der Velde, M., & Bastos, A. C. (2011). A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 144, 175-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee. 2011.08.015.
Jones, D. L., Rousk, J., Edwards-Jones, G., DeLuca, T. H., & Murphy, D. V. (2012). Biochar-mediated changes in soil quality and plant growth in a three year field trial. Soil Biologi and Biochemistry, 45, 113–124. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.10.012
Jien, S. H., & Wang, C. S. (2013). Effects of biochar on soil properties and erosion potential in a highly weathered soil. Catena. 110, 225-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.06.021.
Kronstad, W.E. (1997) Agricultural development and wheat breeding in the 20th Century. In: Braun HJ., Altay F., Kronstad W.E., Beniwal S.P.S., McNab A. (eds) Wheat: Prospects for Global Improvement. Developments in Plant Breeding, vol 6. Springer, Dordrecht.
Lehmann, J., Pereira da Silva, J., Steiner, C. Nehls, T., Zech, W., & Glaser, B., (2003). Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: fertilizer, manure and charcoal amendments. Plant and Soil 249, 343–357. https://doi.org/10.1023/ A:1022833116184.
Lehmann, J., & Joseph, S. (2015). Biochar for Environmental Management: An Introduction. In J. Lehmann & S. Joseph (Eds.), Biochar for Environmental Management Science, Technology and Implementation (2nd Edition, pp. 1–12). London (GB): Routledge.
Lehmann, J., & Rondon, M. (2006). Bio-char soil management on highly weathered soils in the humid tropics. Biol. Approaches. Sust. Soil. Systems. 113: e530.
Liang, F., Li, G. tong, Lin, Q. mei, & Zhao, X. rong. (2014). Crop yield and soil properties in the first 3 years after biochar application to a calcareous soil. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 13(3), 525–532. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60708-X
Maadi, B., Fathi, G., Siadat, S. A., Saeid, K. A., & Jafari, S. (2012). Effects of Preceding Crops and Nitrogen Rates on Grain Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). World Applied Sciences Journal, 17(10), 1331–1336.
Major, J., Rondon, M., Molina, D., Riha, S. J., & Lehmann, J. (2010). Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant and Soil. 333, 117-128. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s11104-010-0327-0.
Novak, J. M., Lima, I., Xing, B., Gaskin, J. W., Steiner, C., Das, K. C., … Schomberg, H. (2009). Characterization of designer biochar produced at different temperatures and their effects on a loamy sand. Annals of Environmental Science, 3, 195–206.
Rahim, H. U., Mian, I. A., Arif, M., Ahmad, S., & Khan, Z. (2020). Soil fertility status as influenced by the carryover effect of biochar and summer legumes. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 8(1), 11–16. https://doi.org/10.35495/ajab.2019.05.198
Rahim, H. U., Mian, I. A., Arif, M., Rahim, Z. U., Ahmad, S., Khan, Z., … Haris, M. (2019). Residual effect of biochar and summer legumes on soil physical properties and wheat growth. Pure Appl. Biol, 8(1), 16–26. https://doi.org/10.19045/bspab.2018.700159.
Sarwar, G., & Nawaz, G. (1985). Studies on the efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides for the control of weeds and their effect on yield of wheat. Sarhad J. Agric. 1, 251-259.
Siadat, S. A., Moradi-Telavat, M. R., Fathi, G., Mazarei, M., Alamisaeid, K., & Mousavi, S. H. (2011). Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera) response to nitrogen fertilizer following different previous crops. Italian Journal of Agronomy, 6(4), 199–203. https://doi.org/10.4081/ija.2011.e31
Singh, H., Singh, A., Kushwaha, H., & Singh, A. (2007). Energy consumption pattern of wheat production in India. Energy. 32, 1848-1854. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2007.03.001
Sohi, S. P., Krull, E., Lopez-Capel, E., & Bol, R. (2010). A review of biochar and its use and function in soil. In Advances in Agronomy (Vol. 105, pp. 47–82). Academic Press Inc.
Vaccari, F. P., Baronti, S., Lugato, E., Genesio, L., Castaldi, S., Fornasier, F., & Miglietta, F. (2011). Biochar as a strategy to sequester carbon and increase yield in durum wheat. European Journal of Agronomy, 34(4), 231–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2011.01.00 6
Varshney, R. K., Balyan, H. S., & Langridge, P. (2006). Wheat. In C. Kole (Ed.), Cereals and Millets (Vol. 1, pp. 79–134). Gewerbestr, Switzerland: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The author(s) still hold the copyright of his/her/their work and retain publishing rights without restrictions such as (but not limited to) patent right, lecture, book and reproduce the article for own purposes. This is stated in Copyright Notice